Investigation on the glass fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete made of M-sand



This research work investigates the effect of utilization of glass fibers in geopolymer concrete made of Manufactured sand (M-sand) over its fresh and hardened properties and understand the influence of fibers over reducing the brittleness of the matrix. Geopolymer concrete synthesized in this study is Fly ash- GGBS blend type with optimum molarity cured under heat condition. Fresh property of the fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete was accessed using compaction factor test. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, ductility factor, first crack toughness, failure crack toughness and ultimate failure toughness were measuredand their results are analyzed and discussed in this work. Later, SEM analysis was carried out over the optimum fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete samples to understand the bonding and the effectiveness of the fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete made of M-sand. Incorporation of glass fiber s proved to be more beneficial and yielded a hybrid concrete with increased strength properties. The performance of fiber s could be measured precisely in increasing the ductility and impact strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed better bonding between the fiber s and the matrix. This study unleashes an enormous scope for the practical implication of fiber reinforced geopolymer concrete as a building material.


Geopolymer concrete; Glass fiber; Fiber reinforced Geopolymer concrete

Full Text:



- J. Davidovits, Properties of geopolymer cements. In: Proceedings of First International Conference on Alkaline Cements and Concretes. Scientific Research Institute on Binders and Materials, Kiev State Technical University, Ukraine, 1994, pp. 131–149.

- B. Singh, G. Ishwarya, M. Gupta, S.K. Bhattacharyya, Geopolymer concrete: a review of some recent developments. Constr. Build. Mater. 85 (2015) 78–90. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.03.036

- P. Zhang, Y. Zheng, K. Wang, J. Zhang, A review on properties of fresh and hardened geopolymer mortar. Compos. Part B-Eng. 152 (18) (2018) 79-95. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.06.031.

- A. Bhutta, M. Farooq, C. Zanotti, N. Banthia, Pull-out behavior of different fiber s in geopolymer mortars: effects of alkaline solution concentration and curing. Mater. Struct. 50 (2017) 80. doi:10.1617/s11527-016-0889-2

- K.T. Nguyen, T.A. Le, J. Lee, D. Lee, K. Lee, Investigation on properties of geopolymer mortar using preheated materials and thermogenetic admixture. Constr. Build. Mater. 130 (2017) 146-155. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.10.110

- A. Chithambar Ganesh, M. Muthukannan, A Review of Recent Developments In Geopolymer Concrete. Int. J. Eng. Technol. 7 (4-5) (2018) 696-699. doi:10.14419/ijet.v7i4.5.25061

- K.H Mo, U.J. Alengaram, M.Z. Jumaat, Structural performance of reinforced geopolymer concrete members: A review. Constr. Build. Mater. 120 (2016) 251–264. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.05.088

- P. Duxson, A. Fernández-Jiménez, J.L. Provis, G.C. Lukey, A. Palomo, J.S.J. Van Deventer, Geopolymer technology: the current state of the art. J. Mater. Sci. 42 (9) (2007) 2917–2933. doi:10.1007/s10853-006-0637-z

- Z. Pan, J.G. Sanjayan, B.V. Rangan, Fracture properties of geopolymer paste and concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research. 63(10) (2011) 763–771. doi:10.1680/macr .2011.63.10.763

- P. Nath, P.K. Sarker, Fracture Properties of Geopolymer Concrete Cured in Ambient Temperature. In: Proceedings of The Seventh International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference, ISEC-7, Manoa, Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Jun 18-23 2013, pp. 1061-1066. doi:10.3850/978-981-07-5354-2_M-53-430

- K. Korniejenko, Er. Czek, E. Pytlak, M. Adamski, Mechanical properties of geopolymer composites reinforced with natural fibers. Procedia Eng. 151 (2016) 388 – 393. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.395

- S.F.U. Ahmed, H. Mihashi, Strain hardening behaviour of lightweight hybrid polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber reinforced cement composites. Mater. Struct. 44 (6) (2011) 1179-1191. doi:10.1617/s11527-010-9691-8

- S.A. Bernal, J. Bejarano, C. Garzon, R.M. de Gutierrez, S. Delvasto, E.D. Rodriguez, Performance of refractory aluminosilicate particle/fiber reinforced geopolymer composites. Compos. Part B-Eng. 43(4) (2012) 1919–1928. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.02.027

- K. Korniejenko, J. Mikula, M. Lach, Characterization of mechanical properties of short glass fiber reinforced geopolymer composites. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Composite Science and Technology, Lisboa, Portugal, 2–4 September, 2015.

- B.N.A. Aryee, Ghana's mining sector: its contribution to the national economy. Resour. Policy 27(2) (2001) 61–75. doi:10.1016/S0301-4207(00)00042-8

- S. Sreebha, D. Padmalal, Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: A case study. Environ. Manage. 47(1) (2011) 130–140. doi:10.1007/s00267-010-9571-6.

- S. Sreebha, D. Padmalal, Environmental impact of sand mining. a case study in the river catchments of vembanad lake southwest India. J. Earth Sci. 3(1) (2008) 41-54. doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0870-z

- M.A. Ashraf, M.J. Maah, I. Yusoff, A. Wajid, K. Mahmood, Sand mining effects, causes and concerns. A case study from Bestari Jaya, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Sci. Res. Essays 6(6) (2011) 1216–1231. doi:10.5897/SRE10.690

- S. Khan, A. Sugie, Sand mining and its social impacts on local society in Rural Bangladesh. A case study of a village in Tangail District. J. Urban Region. Stud. Contemp. India 2(1) (2015) 1–11.

- Radhakrishna, K.P. Kumar, K. Venugopal, V. Sasalatti, Characteristics of Alternative building materials. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Food Nutrition and Civil Engineering, ICFNCE’2015, Dubai, UAE, March 14-15, 2015. doi:10.15242/IAE.IAE0315405

- A.C. Ganesh, M. Muthukannan, M. Rajeswaran, T.U. Shankar, M. Selvam, Comparative Study On The behaviour Of Geopolymer Concrete Using M-Sand and conventional concrete exposed to elevated temperature. Int. J. Civil Eng. Technol. 9(11) (2018) 981-989.

- R. Anuradha, V. Sreevidya, R. Venkatasubramani, B.V. Rangan, Modified Guidelines For Geopolymer Concrete Mix Design Using Indian Standard. Asian J. Civil Eng. 13(3) (2012) 353-364.

- T. Alomayri, Effect of glass micro fibre addition on the mechanical performances of fly ash-based geopolymer composites. J. Asian Ceram. Soc. 5(3) (2017) 334-340. doi:10.1016/j.jascer.2017.06.007

- S.F.U. Ahmed, H. Mihashi, Strain hardening behavior of lightweight hybrid polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber reinforced cement composites. Mater. Struct. 44(6) (2011) 1179-1191. doi:10.1617/s11527-010-9691-8

- B. Nematollahi, J. Sanjayan, F.U.A. Shaikh, Tensile Strain Hardening Behavior of PVA Fiber -Reinforced Engineered Geopolymer Composite. J. Mater. Civil Eng. 27(10) (2015) 04015001-1- 04015001-12. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001242.

- Y.E.S. Antony, Experimental Investigation on Replacement of GGBS for Fly Ash in Steel Fibre Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete. Int. J. Appl. Civil Environ. Eng. 2(3) (2016) 14-18.

- Z. Bayasi, J. Zeng, Properties of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete. ACI Mater. J. 90(6) (1993) 605-610. doi:10.14359/4439

- S.A. Bhalchandra, A.Y. Bhosle, Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete. Int. J. Modern Eng. Res. 3(4) (2017) 2007-2010.

- R. Balamurugan, R. Balachandran, S. Kalaiyarasi, Experimental investigation of glass fibre reinforced geopolymer concrete. Eng. Sci. Technol. 7(2) (2017) 15–19.

- T. Sathanandam, P.O. Awoyera, V. Vijayan, K. Sathishkumar, Low carbon building: experimental insight on the use of fly ash and glass fibre for making geopolymer concrete. Sust. Environ. Res. 27(3) (2017) 146–153. doi:10.1016/j.serj.2017.03.005

- H. Sethi, P.P. Bansal, R. Sharma, Effect of Addition of GGBS and Glass Powder on the Properties of Geopolymer Concrete. Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. Civil Eng. 43 (2019) 607-617. doi:10.1007/s40996-018-0202-4.

- P. Sachithanandam, T.P. Meikandaan, Properties and strength of glass fibre reinforced geopolymer concrete. Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol. 4(6) (2015) 4409–4416. doi:10.15680/IJIRSET.2015.0406219

- K. Vijai, R. Kumutha, B.G.Vishnuram, Properties Of Glass Fibre Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete Composites. Asian J. Civil Eng. 13(4) (2012) 511-520.

- F. Puertas, A. Gil-Maroto, M. Palacios, Alkali activated slag mortars reinforced with glass fibre. Performance and properties. Mater. Constr. 56(283) (2006) 79–90. doi:10.3989/mc.2006.v56.i283.10

- R.M. Novais, J. Carvalheiras, M.P. Seabra, R.C. Pullar, J.A. Labrincha, Effective mechanical reinforcement of inorganic polymers using glass fibre waste. J Clean. Prod. 166 (2017) 343–349. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.07.242


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2170-127X

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at