Assessment of geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber



Discarded waste tires are becoming a serious threat to health, environment, and ecological systems worldwide if it is not disposed of properly. Every year 1000 million of waste tires are discarded. This number may grow up to 1200 million by the year 2030. On the other hand, construction of civil engineering structures such as buildings, dams, highways, etc. are at high risk of differential settlement, especially in the case of weak or soft clay, which is due to its low shear strength and high compressibility. The paper aims to assess geotechnical properties of uncemented/cemented clayey soil incorporated with waste crumb rubber. Compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, toughness index, CBR values and swelling pressure of rubberized uncemented/cemented clayey soil (3%, and 6% cement and different percentage of crumb rubber) have been obtained. After rigorous extensive study, it has been concluded that unconfined compressive strength and split tensile strength of rubberized cemented clayey soil decreases with the increase of the percentage of crumb rubber whereas the axial, and diametral strain are found to be increased with the addition of crumb rubber up to 5% after that it starts to decrease. The CBR values, swelling pressure, and toughness index of uncemented/cemented clayey soil was significantly affected by incorporation of crumb rubber. SEM studies have also been incorporated in this investigation.


Waste tire-clay mixtures; Compaction parameters; Unconfined compressive strength; Split tensile strength; California bearing ratio; Swelling pressure; Scanning electron microscopy

Full Text:



- J.S. Yadav, S.K. Tiwari, Behaviour of cement stabilized treated coir fibre-reinforced clay-pond ash mixtures, J. Build. Eng. 8 (2016) 131–140. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2016.10.006.

- J.S. Yadav, S.K. Tiwari, Effect of inclusion of crumb rubber on the unconfined compressive strength and wet-dry durability of cement stabilized clayey soil, J. Build. Mater. Struct. 3 (2016) 68–84. doi:10.5281/zenodo.242643.

- K.M. Kotresh, M.G. Belachew, Study On Waste Tyre Rubber As Concrete Aggregates, Int. J. Sci. Eng. Technol. 436 (2014) 433–436.

- H. Cetin, M. Fener, O. Gunaydin, Geotechnical properties of tire-cohesive clayey soil mixtures as a fill material, Eng. Geol. 88 (2006) 110–120. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.09.002.

- A. Srivastava, S. Pandey, J. Rana, Use of shredded tyre waste in improving the geotechnical properties of expansive black cotton soil, Geomech. Geoengin. 9 (2014) 303–311. doi:10.1080/17486025.2014.902121.

- P.G. Sarvade, P.R. Shet, Geotechnical Properties of Problem Clay Stabilized with Crumb Rubber Powder, Bonfring Int. J. Ind. Eng. Manag. Sci. 2 (2012) 27–32. doi:10.9756/BIJIEMS.1671.

- A. Al-Tabbaa, O. Blackwell, S.A. Porter, An Investigation into the Geotechnical Properties of Soil-Tyre Mixtures, Environ. Technol. 18 (1997) 855–860. doi:10.1080/09593331808616605.

- A. Al-Tabbaa, T. Aravinthan, Natural clay-shredded tire mixtures as landfill barrier materials, Waste Manag. 18 (1998) 9–16. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(98)00002-6.

- V. Vinot, B. Singh, Investigation on Behaviour of Soils Reinforced With Shredded Waste Tyres, In: Proceedings of the Indian Geotechnical Conference Igc, Geotide. Guntur, INDIA, 2009, pp. 344–348.

- A.S. Prasad, P.T. Ravichandran, R. Annadurai, P.R.K. Rajkumar, Study on Effect of Crumb Rubber on Behavior of Soil, Int. J. GEOMATICS Geosci. 4 (2014) 579–584.

- A.F. Cabalar, Z. Karabash, W.S. Mustafa, Stabilising a clay using tyre buffings and lime, Road Mater. Pavement Des. 15 (2014) 872–891. doi:10.1080/14680629.2014.939697.

- B. Singh, V. Vinot, Influence of Waste Tire Chips on Strength Characteristics of Soils, J. Civ. Eng. Archit. 5 (2011) 819–827.

- A.. Lekan, T.A. Ojo, Consolidation Properties of Compacted Lateritic Soil Treated with tyre ash, J. Eng. Manuf. Technol. 1 (2013) 70–78. doi:10.4236/gm.2011.13011.

- E. Kalkan, Preparation of scrap tire rubber fiber-silica fume mixtures for modification of clayey soils, Appl. Clay Sci. 80–81 (2013) 117–125. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2013.06.014.

- E. Cokca, Z. Yilmaz, Use of rubber and bentonite added fly ash as a liner material, Waste Manag. 24 (2004) 153–164. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2003.10.004.

- S. Akbulut, S. Arasan, E. Kalkan, Modification of clayey soils using scrap tire rubber and synthetic fibers, Appl. Clay Sci. 38 (2007) 23–32. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2007.02.001.

- F.C. Wang, W. Song, Effects of Crumb Rubber on Compressive Strength of Cement-Treated Soil, Arch. Civ. Eng. LXI (2015). doi:10.1515/ace-2015-0036.

- G.S. Hambirao, P.G. Rakaraddi, Soil Stabilization Using Waste Shredded Rubber Tyre Chips, IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng. 11 (2014) 20–27.

- G.R. Otoko, P.P. Pedro, Cement Stabilization of Laterite and Chikoko Soils Using Waste Rubber Fibre, Int. J. Eng. Sci. Res. Technol. 3 (2014) 130–136.

- R.M. Subramanian, S.P. Jeyapriya, Study on Effect of Waste Tyres in Flexible Pavement System, in: Indian Geotech. Soc. Chennai Chapter, 2009, pp. 19-24.

- IS 1498 (1970), IS : 1498 – 1970, Classification and Identification of Soils for General Engineering Purposes, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (ReaffIrmed 2007), (1970).

- ASTM, D1557-12, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012, 91 (2012) 1–11. doi:10.1520/D1557-12.1.

- ASTM, D 2166-13, Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, ASTM Int. (2013) 1–7. doi:10.1520/D2166.

- ASTM, C496-96, Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2005., (2011) 1–5. doi:10.1520/C0496.

- ASTM D 1883-99, Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils, ASTM D 1883-99. 4 (2005) 21–24. doi:10.1520/D4429-09A.

- ASTM D 4546-96, Standard test methods for one-dimensional swell or collapse of soils, ASTM D 4546-96. (n.d.) 1–10. doi:10.1520/D4546-14.

- J.S. Yadav, S.K. Tiwari, A study on the potential utilization of crumb rubber in cement treated soft clay, J. Build. Eng. 9 (2017) 177–191. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2017.01.001.

- M.J. Khattak, M. Alrashidi, Durability and mechanistic characteristics of fiber reinforced soil–cement mixtures, Int. J. Pavement Eng. 7 (2006) 53–62. doi:10.1080/10298430500489207.

- S.P. Guleria, R.K. Dutta, Effect of addition of tire chips on the unconfined compressive strength of fly ash-lime-gypsum mixture, Int. J. Geotech. Eng. 6 (2012) 1–13. doi:10.3328/IJGE.2012.06.01.1-13.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2170-127X

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at