Packing Density Approach for Sustainable Development of Concrete

Sudarshan Dattatraya KORE, A. K. VYAS


This paper deals with the details of optimized mix design for normal strength concrete using particle packing density method. Also the concrete mixes were designed as per BIS: 10262-2009. Different water-cement ratios were used and kept same in both design methods. An attempt has been made to obtain sustainable and cost effective concrete product by use of particle packing density method. The parameters such as workability, compressive strength, cost analysis and carbon di oxide emission were discussed. The results of the study showed that, the compressive strength of the concrete produced by packing density method are closer to that of design compressive strength of BIS code method. By adopting the packing density method for design of concrete mixes, resulted in 11% cost saving with 12% reduction in carbon di oxide emission.


Normal strength concrete , packing density , Sustainability

Full Text:



- M. Rached, D. Fowler, E. Koehler, Use of Aggregates to Reduce Cement Content in Concrete. In: Second International Conference Sustainable Construction Materials and Technology, Universita Politecnia delle Marche, Ancona, Italy, 2010.

- S.S. Jamkar, C.B.K. Rao, Index of Aggregate Particle Shape and Texture of coarse aggregate as a parameter for concrete mix proportioning. Cement Concrete Res. 34(2004) 2021–2027. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.03.010.

- M.S. Meddah, S. Zitouni, S. Belaabes, Effect of content and particle size distribution of coarse aggregate on the compressive strength of concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 24(2010) 505–512. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.10.009.

- E.T. Dawood, M. Ramli, Influence of hybrid fibers on toughtness behavior of high flowing concrete. Arch. Civ. Eng. 57(2011) 249-260. doi:10.2478/v.10169-011-0018-0.

- S. Gopinath, A. Ramachandra-Murthy, D. Ramya, N.R. Iyer, Optimised Mix Design for Normal Strength and High Performance Concrete Using Particle Packing Method. Arch. Civ. Eng. 57(2011) 357-371. doi:10.2478/v.10169-011-0026-0.

- A. Wang, C. Zhang, N. Zhang, Study of the influence of the particle size distribution on the properties of cement. Cement Concrete Res. 27(5) (1997) 685–695. doi:10.1016/S0008-8846(97)00060-4.

- H.H.C. Wong, A.K.H. Kwan, Packing density : a key concept for mix design of high performance concrete. In: Proceedings of the Materials Science and Technology in Engineering Conference, HKIE Materials Division, Hong Kong, 2005, pp. 1-15.

- H.H.C. Wong, A.K.H. Kwan, Packing density of cementitious materials: part 1—measurement using a wet packing method. Mater. Struct. 41(4) (2008) 689–701. doi:10.1617/s11527-007-9274-5.

- N. Raj, S. G Patil, B. Bhattacharjee, Concrete Mix Design By Packing Density Method. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng. 11(2) (2014) 34–46. doi:10.9790/1684-11213446.

- S.A.A.M. Fennis, J.C. Walraven, J.A. Den Uijl, The use of particle packing models to design ecological concrete. Heron. 54 (2009) 183–202.

- G. Jeenu, P. Vinod, L. Mangal, Packing characteristics of aggregates for high performance concrete. Int. J. Earth Sci. Eng. 5 (2012) 1424–1431.

- A.K.H. Kwan, H.H.C. Wong, Packing density of cementitious materials: part 2—packing and flow of OPC + PFA + CSF. Mater. Struct. 41 (2008) 773–784. doi:10.1617/s11527-007-9281-6.

- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Specification for Portland pozzolana cement- BIS:1489(Part-1)-1991, New Delhi, India., 1991.

- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete. BIS:383, New Delhi, India; 1970., Building, 1997.

- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Specification for Concrete Admixture BIS:9103-1999, New Delhi, India., 1999.

- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design Tile IS:10262-1982, New Delhi, India., 1999.

- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Specification for Methos of Sampling and Analysis of concrete, BIS:1199-1659,New Delhi, India, 1999.

- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Specification for Methods of Testing Bond in Reinforced Concrete- BIS:2770(Part-1)-1967, New Delhi, India., 1997.

- S.A.A.M. Fennis, J.C. Walraven, Design of ecological concrete by particle packing optimization, 2011.

- S. Luhar, S. Chaudhary, U. Dave, Effect of different parameters on the compressive strength of rubberized geopolymer concrete. In book: Multi-disciplinary Sustainable Engineering: Current and Future Trends, CRC Press, 2016, Chapter: 11, pp. 77–86. doi:10.1201/b20013-13.

- H. Şahan Arel, Recyclability of waste marble in concrete production. J. Clean. Prod. 131(10) (2016) 179–188. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.052.

- R. Hamza, S. El-Haggar, S. Khedr, Marble and Granite Waste: Characterization and Utilization in Concrete Bricks. Int. J. Biosci. Biochem. Bioinf. 21 (2011) 286–291. doi:10.7763/IJBBB.2011.V1.54.

- S. Banu, Effects of Salient Parameters Influence the Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete. Int. J. Res. Civ. Eng. Archit. Des. 3 (2015) 1–10.

- T.V. Ramachandra, Shwetmala, Emissions from India’s transport sector: Statewise synthesis. Atmos. Environ. 43(3-4) (2009) 5510–5517. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.015.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2170-127X

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at