Accepted Papers to Appear in Future Issues

Durability of self-compacting concretes made with the natural pozzolan and siliceous fines.
K. AYED , D. E. KERDAL, N. LEKLOU

Abstract
The effect of natural pozzolan and local waste siliceous fines on the durability of SCC was studied in this paper. Three self-compacting concretes were made with the following three additions,namely limestone fillers (SCC LF), pozzolanic fillers (SCC NP) and siliceous fillers (SCC SF). Durability tests, such as the porosity accessible to water, capillarity, carbonation, permeability to oxygen gas and diffusion of chloride ions, were carried out on these concretes in order to study the influence of these fillers on the transfer properties and durability of SCCs. The results obtained indicate that the SCC LF and SCC NP generally have the same transfer properties; these propertiesare significantly influenced by porosity andcarbonation. In addition, the capillarity is nearly similar forall three SCCs. Moreover, itis worth noting thatSCC NP gives permeability and diffusion coefficients of chloride ions slightly lower in comparison with those of the other SCCs. These findingssuggest that the incorporation of Algerian natural fines and industrial waste as mineral additions into the SCC may have a positive environmental impact and can promote the development of local materials that are available in large quantities and whose production cost is low.
Date accepted : 2020-03-10

Parametric study of the seismic vulnerability of steel structures and their vulnerability curves

Omar AMELLAL, Mahmoud BENSAIBI

Abstract
The use of metal structures is increasingly used. This is due to the fact that these structures are quick to erect (saving time and money) and make it possible to obtain interesting technical characteristics (spans and heights). These structures can be built in seismic zones and therefore despite their ductility can be damaged. This aspect has been very little addressed. Therefore, it is proposed within the framework of this study to investigate the seismic vulnerability of steel structures using the "vulnerability index" method. Parameters having an influence on the seismic behaviour of steel frames were identified and then weighting coefficients for these parameters were calculated using the "Push-over" method. To do this, finite element models were developed and vulnerability classes were defined.
Damage probability matrices and seismic vulnerability curves as well as a classification of metallic structures according to their vulnerability were developed. Validation and application cases have been processed and the obtained results are in adequacy what observations made in situ.
Date accepted : 2020-04-14

Two-dimensional fracture analysis of FGM under mechanical loading
Imène HEBBAR, Abdelkader BOULENOUAR, Yazid AIT FERHAT

Abstract
This paper extends the concept to isotropic functionally graded materials and addresses fracture mechanics problems under mechanical loading. The stress intensity factors (SIFs) for mode-I and mixed-mode two-dimensional problems are evaluated by means of the displacement extrapolation technique (DET). Using the Ansys Parametric Design Language (APDL), the variation continues of the material properties is incorporated by specifying the material parameters at the centroid of each finite element. In this paper, two applications are investigated to check for the robustness of the numerical techniques, the FGM disk with a central inclined crack subjected to concentrated couple forces and the three-point bending specimen with crack parallel to material gradation. The numerical results obtained by present technique are discussed by comparison with other published results.
Date accepted : 2020-04-15

Selection of the best alternative for a road project to replace a section in a flood-prone area using GIS and AMC tools
Mohamed ZAOUI, Slimane HIMOURI, Tahar KADRI, Charef BENAOUINA

Abstract
Decision-making involves the selection from various possible alternatives and generally implicates huge financial resources. In addition, one characteristic of a territory making it difficult to make a decision is its multi-criteria aspect. These multi-criteria generally have antagonistic effects and analytical methods are most congruent for solving this kind of difficult decision-making situation. The work presented in this article focuses on the problem of decision-making in order to identify the most favorable road alignment with regard to a series of topographical, geometric, geological and economic criteria. The main goal of this study is to select the best road alignment project to replace part of the road section of the CW 42 connecting the city of Sidi Belattar to National Road 90 (RN 90) using GIS and AMC tools. This road section has been blocked several times in recent years during rare winter flooding. The proposed approach deals with the following points: First, determination of the relevant criteria using GIS, then evaluation and classification of the various alternatives by applying the AHP method using AMC Expert-choice software and PROMETHEE-GAIA algorithms (laboratory-developed web.d-sight software, coded SMG, ULB). Four variants were recommended to replace the vulnerable section. From these four variants a classification was made, according to the two methods AHP and PROMETHEE. The calculated consistency of the results confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Finally, Alternative 2 and Alternative 1 were ranked first by both AHP and PROMETHEE methods and are therefore a recommended choice. This work aims at helping decision makers to rank four road projects of the study area in order to replace the most vulnerable section
Date accepted : 2020-04-16

Rapid Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings in the Old Algiers
Farah LAZZALI, Mohammed N. FARSI

Abstract
The selection of an appropriate seismic vulnerability method to evaluate buildings stock in urban area depends essentially on the available information. Information about buildings can be obtained essentially from field visual inspection. In this context, rapid visual procedure to collect buildings data can be used to identify vulnerable buildings based their structural characteristics. In this study, which aims to evaluate the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings in the old part of Algiers (Algeria), including Casbah and Bab El Oued areas, buildings data has been collected using rapid visual exterior examination. Then, with the main purpose to evaluate the physical damage and its relationship with the seismic intensity, empirical method using the vulnerability index, previously developed during the European project Risk-UE, is used. Results and conclusions of this work could be useful to define appropriate measures to upgrade seismic performance of existing buildings.
Date accepted : 2020-04-29

Effect of limestone fines on the mechanical properties and durability of mortar made with crushed sand
El-Hadj Meziane, Said Kenai, Bensaid Boulekbache, Abdelkader Bougara

Abstract
This study investigate the influence of limestone fines (LF) on the mechanical properties, hydration heat and durability (acid and sulfate environments) of mortars made with crushed sand (CS) and different rate replacement of limestone fines of the CS (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) using three types of cement, that is, ordinary Portland cement, limestone cement and pozzolanic cement. The obtained results show that the limestone fines increase the compressive strength and generate more hydration heat for all the used cements. Mortars made with blended cements, limestone or pozzolan, with 5% and 10% limestone fines, have low expansion when imerged in 5% Na2SO4 solution. In addition, when immerged in acids environment, the mortars with limestone fines exhibit negative effect at long-term durability. However, the mortar manufactured with ordinary Portland cement containing 15% of limestone fines will be strongly affected. It was found that no benefit can be gained from eliminating limestone fines fraction from the CS.
Date accepted 2020-05-31

The effect of displacement speed of rigid retaining walls on failure of analogical material by active earth pressure
Esma MOSTEFA KARA, Abdelkrim SEKKEL, Mohamed FELLAH, Abdelkader DJELLAL

Abstract
This paper illustrated the physical modeling of the phenomenon of Active Earth Pressure and kinetics of rupture in the granular soils. Better, understand the phenomenon of Active Earth Pressure and mechanisms of failure behind the retaining walls will contribute to better conceiving themand will make claims less damaging. The exploitation of a small-scale model filled with Schneebeli material;light two-dimensional material simulating granular non-cohesive soil, allowed tests realization of Active Earth Pressure by moving the mobile wall of the device towards the outside of two-dimensional material. The evolution of the shear bands has highlighted the locations of the deformations. The results showed that the wall's speed of movement influences the failure mechanism and is proportional to the disturbance of the granular soil. In perspective, it would be judicious to explore the failure on real soil reinforced by recycled materials.
Date accepted : 2020-06-01

Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of High Performance Concrete Using Copper Slag as Fine Aggregate

Raghubir Singh, Rizwan Ahmad Khan

Abstract
This paper reports the results of an experimental study on the high performance concrete made with copper slag as fine aggregate. The percentage of Copper Slag(CS) added by weight in a range viz. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% as a replacement of sand used in concrete and cement was replaced with 15% Metakaolin. The properties studied include compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, Sorptivity, Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT), Accelerated Carbonation test and Microstructural properties. The test results showed that the compressive strength increases up to 50% copper slag as replacement of sand, beyond which decrease in strength was observed. The results of RCPT and sorptivity with different proportions of copper slag at 28, 90, 120 days of curing period showed the lowest value for the mix containing 25% and 50 % copper slag at each curing age. Carbonation results show that concrete mixes with 85% cement and MK 15% with increasing percentage of copper slag, the carbonation depth increases slowly especially for 75% and 100%. The microscopic view from Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated more voids, capillary channels, and micro cracks with the increment of copper slag as substitution of sand as compared to the control mix, profoundly visible at 100% replacement of sand which is due to the presence of free water.
Date accepted : 2020-06-02

Investigation on cyclic behaviour of FRC beams incorporating copper slag as sustainable waste
C. Vijayaprabha, D. Brindha

Abstract
Scarcity of the natural sand and large availability of industrial wastes give the way to utilise the industrial by-product in concrete production. This paper showcases the performance of concrete composite containing copper slag and polypropylene fibre under cyclic loading. Fibrillated polypropylene fibre of 0% (P0), 0.2% (P1), 0.4% (P2) & 0.6% (P3) volume fractions and 40% copper slag (C40) are used together. The experimental work was conducted on the reinforced concrete beams of size 100mm x 200mm x 900mm. The criteria considered for discussion are yield power, yield deflection, ultimate strength, ultimate deflection, ductility factors and energy dissipation. It is observed that when subjected to monotonic loading and cyclic loading respectively, the overall load carrying power of C40P2 beam is 5 per cent and 2.71 per cent higher than the reference section. The specimen C40P2 has a ductility factor 25.05 per cent higher than the control beam. Energy absorption capacity of C40P2 is 72.79% more than the normal concrete. It is therefore concluded that, under cyclic loading, the output of 40% copper slag with 0.4% of polypropylene fibers find superior than control concrete.
Date accepted : 2020-06-03

Analytical study of failure mechanism of frictional soil around the inclined ground anchor using limit analysis method
Feriel Mekki, Mohamed Meksaoine

Abstract
This paper presents the results of theoretical study based on the kinematic theorem of the limit analysis for elaboration of the mechanism of failure of cohesionless soil (sand) around the inclined ground anchor at the time of tension and for estimation the limit load in the case of criterion of Mohr-Coulomb taking into account of the mobilization of the ground in abutment in reaction to the loading. The effect of the inclination of the ground anchor (), the friction angle of the soil () and the angle of the slope () were examined on the collapse load which is expressed according to the uplift factor (N).Through this study, it has been found that the uplift factor (N) increases with the increase of friction angle of the soil (), with the inclination of the ground anchor () and with the slope angle ().
Date accepted : 2020-06-03

Experimental Study of Physical, Fresh-State and Strength Parameters of Concrete incorporating Wood Waste Ash as a Cementitious Material
Muhammad Saleem Raza, Kunal Rai, Danish Kumar, Mutahar Ali

Abstract
The increasing demand and production of cement have caused a huge environmental burden and thus researchers are involved in discovering waste materials having cementitious properties to reduce the production and usage of cement in order to contribute towards the development of a sustainable environment. The present study, therefore, sought to quantify the influence of wood waste ash (WWA) as a cementitious resource on the fresh-state, physical, and strength parameters of concrete. The water absorption, workability, density, compression strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of concrete was checked at various replacement levels i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by weight fraction of cement. The density and water absorption were checked on the 28th day of curing while the strength parameters were tested at 7, 28, 56, and 90 days of curing period. The water absorption, density, and workability of concrete reduced with an increase in wood waste ash content while the strength values were increased up to 10% replacement level. Hence, this study suggests that 10% WWA can be used instead of cement for concrete structures.
Date accepted : 2020-06-03

A Solar energy, to the test of the great glass stage in contemporary Architecture in Saharan environment
Khencha Khadidja, Ratiba Wided BIARA, Hocine BELMILI

Abstract
Currently, the façades of the desert buildings have witnessed and remarkably widespread use of glass. But, without any regard to the lowest harsh climate data. However, this exaggerated use of glass in the contemporary facades of the buildings may cause many problems, especially at the level of thermal comfort of the user. Hence, the excessive energy consumption resulting from heat exchange through the glass.
With the current technological developments and the development of new and advanced building materials of glass, who can be used to reduce excessive energy consumption. Among these, materials are insulating glass and energy-producing at the same time. However, how effective is this type of glass in contemporary desert architecture? What is their efficiency at the level of thermal performance inside the building and even on the level of user comfort (heat exchange, production, and energy-saving)?
To find out, a comparative study was conducted between four types of glazing materials used in contemporary architecture, Simple Glazing (i), Double Glazing (ii), Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic (STPV) (iii), and the Vacuum Photovoltaic Insulated Glass Unit (VPV IGU) (iv). Before the simulation, an overview of the history of the use of glass in contemporary buildings in Algeria in general and in desert regions, in particular, was presented. After that, the most important results of the comparison study are presented according to the simulation software TRNSYS.
Date accepted : 2020-06-14